oracle数据库rman备份计划及恢复

1.rman完全恢复的前提条件:历史的datafile,controlfile和spfile备份,加上完整的archivelog和完好的redolog。

2.rman备份脚本:

a.RMAN 0级备份命令:

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run{   
allocate channel c1 type disk;   
allocate channel c2 type disk;   
allocate channel c3 type disk;   
backup incremental level 0 tag  'level0'  format "E:\recovery_area\rfdb\rfdb\AUTOBACKUP\rman_dir\RFDB_level_0_%u_%s_%p"  as compressed backupset
database;   
sql "alter system archive log current";   
backup filesperset 3 format "E:\recovery_area\rfdb\rfdb\AUTOBACKUP\rman_dir\arch_%u_%s_%p_%c"   
archivelog all delete input; #备份归档可选,可以单独定期备份   
release channel c1;   
release channel c2;   
release channel c3;   
}
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b.RMAN 1级备份命令:

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run{   
allocate channel c1 type disk;   
allocate channel c2 type disk;   
allocate channel c3 type disk;   
backup incremental level 1 tag  'level1' format 'E:\recovery_area\rfdb\rfdb\AUTOBACKUP\rman_dir\RFDB_level_1_%u_%s_%p'   as compressed backupset
database;   
sql 'alter system archive log current';   
backup filesperset 3 format 'E:\recovery_area\rfdb\rfdb\AUTOBACKUP\rman_dir\arch_%u_%s_%p'   
archivelog all delete input; #备份归档可选,可以单独定期备份   
release channel c1;   
release channel c2;   
release channel c3;   
}
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c.rman删除备份命令(在保留最近一天备份的情况下,删除其他备份):

DELETE NOPROMPT OBSOLETE RECOVERY WINDOW OF 1 DAYS;

d.操作系统层面运行rman备份或删除命令(windows/linux):

rman target sys/rf4rfvbgt56yhn@rfdb nocatalog CMDFILE 'D:\app\rman\rman_file\level_0.txt' log=E:\recovery_area\rfdb\rfdb\AUTOBACKUP\rman_dir\log\rman_level_0.log

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export ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
export ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db1
export ORACLE_SID=atest
export PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$PATH

rman target sys/123456@atest nocatalog CMDFILE '/u01/rman/rman.sh' log=/u01/rman/rman.log
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00 02 * * 1  bash /u01/rman_file/run_rman_0.sh

00 02 * * 3  bash /u01/rman_file/run_rman_0.sh

00 02 * * 5  bash /u01/rman_file/run_rman_0.sh

00 04 * * *  bash /u01/rman_file/run_delete.sh

34 11 * * *  bash /u01/rman_file/run_rman_0.sh
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e.rman参数设置:

RMAN> CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP ON;
RMAN> CONFIGURE DEFAULT DEVICE TYPE TO DISK;
RMAN> CONFIGURE DATAFILE BACKUP COPIES FOR DEVICE TYPE disk TO 2;
RMAN> CONFIGURE ARCHIVELOG BACKUP COPIES FOR DEVICE TYPE disk TO 2;

3.rman恢复

a.拷贝datafile,controlfile和spfile的rman备份,以及完整的archivelog和完好的redolog文件到新的数据库。

b.切换至oracle用户,进入rman(先设置sid):

export ORACLE_SID=rfdb
rlwrap  rman target /

c.启动一个伪实例:

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RMAN> startup nomount

connected to target database (not started)
startup failed: ORA-01078: failure in processing system parameters
LRM-00109: could not open parameter file '/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db1/dbs/initrfdb.ora'

starting Oracle instance without parameter file for retrieval of spfile
Oracle instance started

Total System Global Area    1068937216 bytes

Fixed Size                     2260088 bytes
Variable Size                281019272 bytes
Database Buffers             780140544 bytes
Redo Buffers                   5517312 bytes
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d.在伪实例下恢复spfile文件(必须要指定rman的备份片):

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RMAN> restore spfile from "/u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/autobackup/2015_12_07/o1_mf_s_897845728_c6bnq1rq_.bkp";

Starting restore at 14-DEC-15
using channel ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring spfile from AUTOBACKUP /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/autobackup/2015_12_07/o1_mf_s_897845728_c6bnq1rq_.bkp
channel ORA_DISK_1: SPFILE restore from AUTOBACKUP complete
Finished restore at 14-DEC-15
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e.关闭伪实例,用spfile文件启动至nomount状态:

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RMAN> shutdown abort

Oracle instance shut down

RMAN> startup nomount

connected to target database (not started)
Oracle instance started

Total System Global Area    1068937216 bytes

Fixed Size                     2260088 bytes
Variable Size                910164872 bytes
Database Buffers             150994944 bytes
Redo Buffers                   5517312 bytes
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f.恢复控制文件(必须要指定rman的备份片,备份片应该和spfile的恢复片是同一个):

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RMAN> restore controlfile from "/u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/autobackup/2015_12_07/o1_mf_s_897845728_c6bnq1rq_.bkp";

Starting restore at 14-DEC-15
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=1146 device type=DISK

channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring control file
channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
output file name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ATEST/controlfile/o1_mf_c5fr9b0h_.ctl
output file name=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ATEST/controlfile/o1_mf_c5fr9b6n_.ctl
Finished restore at 14-DEC-15
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g.启动数据库至mount状态:

RMAN> alter database mount;

database mounted
released channel: ORA_DISK_1

h.把拷贝到新机器的备份文件注册到(刚恢复的)控制文件中(redolog不能被注册,所以最后有报错,没有关系):

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RMAN> catalog start with "/u01/ora_bak";

Starting implicit crosscheck backup at 14-DEC-15
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=1146 device type=DISK
Crosschecked 1 objects
Finished implicit crosscheck backup at 14-DEC-15

Starting implicit crosscheck copy at 14-DEC-15
using channel ORA_DISK_1
Finished implicit crosscheck copy at 14-DEC-15

searching for all files in the recovery area
cataloging files...
cataloging done

List of Cataloged Files
=======================
File Name: /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ATEST/backupset/2015_12_09/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20151209T161546_c6hrslnq_.bkp
File Name: /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ATEST/autobackup/2015_12_09/o1_mf_s_898014415_c6hsghgm_.bkp
File Name: /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ATEST/autobackup/2015_12_09/o1_mf_s_898013812_c6hrvo18_.bkp

searching for all files that match the pattern /u01/ora_bak

List of Files Unknown to the Database
=====================================
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/O1_MF_S_895896351_C4KSF2YN_.BKP
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_11_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_23_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_19_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_33_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_8_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_9_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_17_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_21_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_20_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_12_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_6_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_14_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_26_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_24_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_30_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_16_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_22_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_7_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_27_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_31_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_25_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_29_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_28_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_13_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_18_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_10_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_15_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_32_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/controlfile/o1_mf_c5fr9b6n_.ctl
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/onlinelog_f/o1_mf_2_c5fr9h1f_.log
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/onlinelog_f/o1_mf_3_c5fr9kfo_.log
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/onlinelog_f/o1_mf_1_c5fr9ds4_.log
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/onlinelog/o1_mf_3_c5fr9k9d_.log
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/onlinelog/o1_mf_2_c5fr9gy5_.log
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/onlinelog/o1_mf_1_c5fr9dmk_.log
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/backupset/2015_12_07/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20151207T173421_c6bnnxsl_.bkp
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/autobackup/2015_12_07/o1_mf_s_897845728_c6bnq1rq_.bkp
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/O1_MF_S_895896118_C4KS5S1R_.BKP

Do you really want to catalog the above files (enter YES or NO)? yes
cataloging files...
cataloging done

List of Cataloged Files
=======================
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_11_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_23_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_19_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_33_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_8_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_9_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_17_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_21_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_20_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_12_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_6_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_14_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_26_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_24_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_30_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_16_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_22_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_7_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_27_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_31_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_25_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_29_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_28_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_13_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_18_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_10_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_15_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_32_896812716.dbf
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/backupset/2015_12_07/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20151207T173421_c6bnnxsl_.bkp
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/autobackup/2015_12_07/o1_mf_s_897845728_c6bnq1rq_.bkp

List of Files Which Where Not Cataloged
=======================================
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/O1_MF_S_895896351_C4KSF2YN_.BKP
  RMAN-07518: Reason: Foreign database file DBID: 966107096  Database Name: RFDB
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/controlfile/o1_mf_c5fr9b6n_.ctl
  RMAN-07519: Reason: Error while cataloging. See alert.log.
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/onlinelog_f/o1_mf_2_c5fr9h1f_.log
  RMAN-07529: Reason: catalog is not supported for this file type
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/onlinelog_f/o1_mf_3_c5fr9kfo_.log
  RMAN-07529: Reason: catalog is not supported for this file type
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/onlinelog_f/o1_mf_1_c5fr9ds4_.log
  RMAN-07529: Reason: catalog is not supported for this file type
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/onlinelog/o1_mf_3_c5fr9k9d_.log
  RMAN-07529: Reason: catalog is not supported for this file type
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/onlinelog/o1_mf_2_c5fr9gy5_.log
  RMAN-07529: Reason: catalog is not supported for this file type
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/onlinelog/o1_mf_1_c5fr9dmk_.log
  RMAN-07529: Reason: catalog is not supported for this file type
File Name: /u01/ora_bak/O1_MF_S_895896118_C4KS5S1R_.BKP
  RMAN-07518: Reason: Foreign database file DBID: 966107096  Database Name: RFDB
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i.开始restore数据文件:

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RMAN> restore database;

Starting restore at 14-DEC-15
using channel ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile backup set restore
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00001 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ATEST/datafile/o1_mf_system_c5fr6s3v_.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00002 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ATEST/datafile/o1_mf_sysaux_c5fr6s6d_.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00003 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ATEST/datafile/o1_mf_undotbs1_c5fr6s7n_.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00004 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ATEST/datafile/o1_mf_users_c5fr6s88_.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: reading from backup piece /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ATEST/backupset/2015_12_09/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20151209T161546_c6hrslnq_.bkp
channel ORA_DISK_1: piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ATEST/backupset/2015_12_09/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20151209T161546_c6hrslnq_.bkp tag=TAG20151209T161546
channel ORA_DISK_1: restored backup piece 1
channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:45
Finished restore at 14-DEC-15
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j.开始recover数据(在此之前,需要先拷贝redolog到控制文件默认的路径下):

redolog默认路径:

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SQL> select member from v$logfile;

MEMBER
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ATEST/onlinelog/o1_mf_3_c5fr9k9d_.log
/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ATEST/onlinelog/o1_mf_3_c5fr9kfo_.log
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ATEST/onlinelog/o1_mf_2_c5fr9gy5_.log
/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ATEST/onlinelog/o1_mf_2_c5fr9h1f_.log
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ATEST/onlinelog/o1_mf_1_c5fr9dmk_.log
/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ATEST/onlinelog/o1_mf_1_c5fr9ds4_.log

6 rows selected.
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开始recover数据库:

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RMAN> recover database;

Starting recover at 14-DEC-15
using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=1137 device type=DISK

starting media recovery

archived log for thread 1 with sequence 15 is already on disk as file /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_15_896812716.dbf
archived log for thread 1 with sequence 16 is already on disk as file /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_16_896812716.dbf
archived log for thread 1 with sequence 17 is already on disk as file /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_17_896812716.dbf
archived log for thread 1 with sequence 18 is already on disk as file /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_18_896812716.dbf
archived log for thread 1 with sequence 19 is already on disk as file /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_19_896812716.dbf
archived log for thread 1 with sequence 20 is already on disk as file /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_20_896812716.dbf
archived log for thread 1 with sequence 21 is already on disk as file /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_21_896812716.dbf
archived log for thread 1 with sequence 22 is already on disk as file /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_22_896812716.dbf
archived log for thread 1 with sequence 23 is already on disk as file /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_23_896812716.dbf
archived log for thread 1 with sequence 24 is already on disk as file /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_24_896812716.dbf
archived log for thread 1 with sequence 25 is already on disk as file /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_25_896812716.dbf
archived log for thread 1 with sequence 26 is already on disk as file /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_26_896812716.dbf
archived log for thread 1 with sequence 27 is already on disk as file /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_27_896812716.dbf
archived log for thread 1 with sequence 28 is already on disk as file /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_28_896812716.dbf
archived log for thread 1 with sequence 29 is already on disk as file /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_29_896812716.dbf
archived log for thread 1 with sequence 30 is already on disk as file /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_30_896812716.dbf
archived log for thread 1 with sequence 31 is already on disk as file /u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_31_896812716.dbf
archived log for thread 1 with sequence 32 is already on disk as file /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ATEST/onlinelog/o1_mf_2_c5fr9gy5_.log
archived log for thread 1 with sequence 33 is already on disk as file /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ATEST/onlinelog/o1_mf_3_c5fr9k9d_.log
archived log for thread 1 with sequence 34 is already on disk as file /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ATEST/onlinelog/o1_mf_1_c5fr9dmk_.log
archived log file name=/u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_15_896812716.dbf thread=1 sequence=15
archived log file name=/u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_16_896812716.dbf thread=1 sequence=16
archived log file name=/u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_17_896812716.dbf thread=1 sequence=17
archived log file name=/u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_18_896812716.dbf thread=1 sequence=18
archived log file name=/u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_19_896812716.dbf thread=1 sequence=19
archived log file name=/u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_20_896812716.dbf thread=1 sequence=20
archived log file name=/u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_21_896812716.dbf thread=1 sequence=21
archived log file name=/u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_22_896812716.dbf thread=1 sequence=22
archived log file name=/u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_23_896812716.dbf thread=1 sequence=23
archived log file name=/u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_24_896812716.dbf thread=1 sequence=24
archived log file name=/u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_25_896812716.dbf thread=1 sequence=25
archived log file name=/u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_26_896812716.dbf thread=1 sequence=26
archived log file name=/u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_27_896812716.dbf thread=1 sequence=27
archived log file name=/u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_28_896812716.dbf thread=1 sequence=28
archived log file name=/u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_29_896812716.dbf thread=1 sequence=29
archived log file name=/u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_30_896812716.dbf thread=1 sequence=30
archived log file name=/u01/ora_bak/ora_bak/arch/1_31_896812716.dbf thread=1 sequence=31
archived log file name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ATEST/onlinelog/o1_mf_2_c5fr9gy5_.log thread=1 sequence=32
archived log file name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ATEST/onlinelog/o1_mf_3_c5fr9k9d_.log thread=1 sequence=33
archived log file name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ATEST/onlinelog/o1_mf_1_c5fr9dmk_.log thread=1 sequence=34
media recovery complete, elapsed time: 00:00:04
Finished recover at 14-DEC-15
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k.以resetlogs打开数据库(在此之前,先删除原来的redolog,因为数据库会重新创建一组redolog):

删除原来的redo:

rm -rf /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ATEST/onlinelog/*

以resetlogs打开数据库:

RMAN> alter database open resetlogs;

using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
database opened

至此,数据库恢复全部完成!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

—恢复内容结束—

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